99 Tamil flowers- Kurunjipaatu – Methodology and Reference


Methodology:

•The identifications are based on my Paper ‘Kuṟiñcippāṭṭu and 99 flowers’.

•Identifications of P.L.Sami were compared with identification of  Tamil Lexicon, Institute of Asian Studies, Naccinarkiniyar commentary and Identification of other scholars.

•Based on the identification images were found primarily from Flowers of India, BIOTIK, Dinesh Valke photo stream and Wikipedia.

•Other images were obtained through google image search

References:

•Sarathy, Palaniappan Vairam ‘Kuṟiñcippāṭṭu and 99 flowers’, awaiting publication

•Sami, P.L.  ‘Plant names in Kuṟiñcippāṭṭu, Journal of Tamil Studies’-  September 1972, 78-103.

•Marr, J.R. ‘An Examination of Some Plant-Names and Identities in India’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No. 1 (1972 •Sivathamby, K. ‘Early South Indian Society and Economy: The Tinai Concept, Social Scientist’, Dec., 1974, vol. 3, no. 5, p. 20-37

•Francis, Jr., ‘Peter Plants as Human Adornment in India’, Economic Botany, Vol. 38, No. 2 (Apr. – Jun., 1984)

•Seth, M. K. ‘Ornamental use Trees and Their Economic Importance’ pg 327

•Mehra, K. L. Kanodia, K. C. Srivastava, R. N. ‘Folk Uses of Plants for Adornment in India’,  Economic Botany, Vol. 29, No. 1 (Jan. – Mar., 1975), pp. 39-46

•Pattuppāṭṭu. With commentary by nacciṉārkkiṉiyar, edited by U.V.Swaminathan Iyer. Tamil University,1986.

Online Reference:

http://www.flowersofindia.net

http://www.biotik.org/

http://www.ars-grin.gov/

http://toptropicals.com/

http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/

http://www.wikipedia.org/

•http://iu.ff.cuni.cz/pandanus/

For further study on each of 99 flowers – Photo Source and Further study

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99 Tamil Flowers – Kurunjipaatu – Photo source and further study


Following links would be useful reference for the 99 flowers,

காந்தள் http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Glory%20Lily.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gloriosa_(genus)
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Indian%20Coral%20Tree.html
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Scarlet%20Bauhinia.html
ஆம்பல் http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/White%20Water%20Lily.html
அனிச்சம் http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Blue%20Pimpernel.html
குவளை http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/plants/plantid2/descriptions/nymodo.html
குறிஞ்சி http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Kurinji.html
வெட்சி http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Ixora%20red.html
செங்கொடுவேரி http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Ixora%20red.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumbago_indica
தேமாம்பூ http://toptropicals.com/catalog/uid/mangifera_indica.htm
மணிச்சிகை http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Purple%20Heart%20Glory.html
உந்தூழ் http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Indian%20Thorny%20Bamboo.html
கூவிளம் பூ http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Bel.html
எறுழம்பூ http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Paper%20Flower%20Climber.html
சுள்ளி http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Porcupine%20Flower.html
கூவிரம் http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Garlic%20Pear%20Tree.html
வடவனப்பூ http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Tulsi.html
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Ram%20Tulsi.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocimum_gratissimum
வாகை http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Siris%20Tree.html
குடசம் http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Indrajao.html
எருவை http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Lesser%20Indian%20Reed%20Mace.html
செருவிளை http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/4202351529/in/photostream/
கருவிளம் http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Butterfly%20Pea.html
பயினிப்பூ http://www.biotik.org/india/species/v/vateindi/vateindi_en.html
வானிப்பூ http://www.biotik.org/india/species/e/euondich/euondich_en.html
குரவம்பூ http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Asiatic%20Tarenna.html
பசும்பிடி http://www.biotik.org/india/species/g/garcxant/garcxant_en.html
வகுளம் http://www.biotik.org/india/species/m/mimuelen/mimuelen_en.html
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Maulsari.html
காயா http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Ironwood%20Tree.html
http://www.biotik.org/india/species/m/memeumbe/memeumbe_en.html
ஆவிரம்பூ http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Tanner’s%20Cassia.html
வேரல் http://www.inbar.int/publication/txt/tr17/Sinarundinaria/sin%20wig.htm
சூரைப்பூ http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Jackal%20Jujube.html
http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/3969152797/
சிறுபூளைப்பூ http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Mountain%20Knot%20Grass.html
குறுநறுங் கண்ணி http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Gunj.html
குருகிலை http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/White%20Fig.html
http://www.biotik.org/india/species/f/ficuvire/ficuvire_en.html
மருதம்பூ http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Asan.html
கோங்கம் http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Buttercup%20Tree.html
போங்கம் http://www.biotik.org/india/species/o/ormotrav/ormotrav_en.html
திலகம் http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Red%20Sandalwood.html
பாதிரி http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/tags/stereospermumchelonoides/
http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Stereospermum_chelonoides
செருந்தி http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Ramdhan%20Champa.html
http://www.biotik.org/india/species/o/ochnobtu/ochnobtu_en.html
அதிரல் http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/3624484044/in/photostream/
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Jewel%20Vine.html
சண்பகம் http://www.biotik.org/india/species/m/michcham/michcham_en.html
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Champa.htm
கரந்தை http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/East%20Indian%20Globe%20Thistle.html
http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/3031231865/in/photostream/
குளவி http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/1814771100/
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Indian%20Cork%20Tree.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patchouli
மாம்பூ http://www.biotik.org/india/species/s/sponpinn/sponpinn_en.html
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Wild%20Mango.html
தில்லைப்பூ http://floraofsingapore.wordpress.com/2010/07/11/excoecaria-agallocha/
http://www.natureloveyou.sg/Excoecaria%20agallocha/Main.html
பாலைப்பூ http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Sweet%20Indrajao.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wrightia_tinctoria
http://www.sybout.com/trees.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manilkara_kauki
முல்லை http://www.flowersofindia.net/risearch/search.php?query=Jasminum+sambac&stpos=0&stype=AND
http://opendata.keystone-foundation.org/jasminum-trichotomum-heyne-ex-roth/jasminum-trichotomum
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasminum_auriculatum
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Juhi.html
கஞ்சங்குல்லை http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Marijuana.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabis_sativa
பிடவம் http://www.biotik.org/india/species/b/benkmala/benkmala_en.html
http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Benkara_malabarica
செங்கருங்காலி http://opendata.keystone-foundation.org/acacia-chundra-rottler-willd-2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_chundra
வாழை http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Banana.html
வள்ளி http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Five%20Leaf%20Yam.html
http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/2902389478/in/photostream/
நெய்தல் http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nymphaea_nouchali
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Blue%20Water%20Lily.html
தென்னம்பாளை http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Coconut.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coconut
தளவம் http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Red%20Kunda.html
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Pink%20Jasmine.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasminum_polyanthum
தாமரை http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelumbo_nucifera
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Lotus.html
ஞாழல் http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Ragi.html
மௌவல் http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Common%20Jasmine.html
கொகுடிப்பூ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasminum_multiflorum
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Kunda.html
சேடல் http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Har%20Singar.html#
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyctanthes_arbor-tristis
செம்மல் http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasminum_grandiflorum
சிறுசெங்குரலி http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Trapa_natans
கோடல் http://www.marlothiiconservancy.org.za/?p=365
கைதை http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Kewda.html
வழை http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/3359816745/in/photostream/
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Surangi.html
http://www.biotik.org/india/species/m/mammsuri/mammsuri_en.html
காஞ்சி http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/False%20White%20Teak.html
http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/3113053378/in/photostream/
மணிக் குலை http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Red%20Water%20Lily.html
பாங்கர்ப்பூ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvadora_persica
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Toothbrush%20Tree.html
மரவம்பூ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shorea_roxburghii
http://www.hindu.com/2011/03/08/stories/2011030852410200.htm
தணக்கம்பூ http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Helicopter%20Tree.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gyrocarpus_americanus
ஈங்கை http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Twisted%20Acacia.html#
இலவம் http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Silk%20Cotton%20Tree.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombax_ceiba
கொன்றை http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cassia_fistula
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Amaltas.html
அடுப்பம்பூ http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Goat%20Foot%20Vine.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipomoea_pes-caprae
ஆத்திப்பூ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bauhinia_vahlii
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Maloo%20Creeper.html
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Yellow%20Orchid%20Tree.html
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Bauhinia_tomentosa
அவரைப்பூ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lablab_purpureus
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Lablab%20Bean.htm
பகன்றை http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Transparent%20Wood%20Rose.html
http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/1963436279/in/photostream/
பலாசம்பூ http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Flame%20of%20the%20Forest.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butea_monosperma
http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/444871065/in/photostream/
பிண்டி http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saraca_asoca
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Sita%20Ashok.html
வஞ்சி http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calamus_rotang
பிச்சி (பித்திகம்) http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Wild%20Jasmine.html
http://www.floracafe.com/Search_PhotoDetails.aspx?Photo=Top&Id=1459
சிந்துவாரம் http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitex_negundo
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Chaste%20Tree.html
தும்பை http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Leucas_aspera
http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/517437888/
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Common%20Leucas.html
துழாய் http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Tulsi.html
தோன்றி http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Glory%20Lily.html
நந்தியாவட்டம் http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Crape%20Jasmine.html
நறவம் http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Lavang%20Lata.html
புன்னாகப்பூ http://www.biotik.org/india/species/c/calopoly/calopoly_en.html
பாரம் http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gossypium_herbaceum
பீரம் http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Ribbed%20Sponge%20Gourd.html
http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/3911957321/in/photostream/
குருக்கத்திப்பூ http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Madhavi%20Lata.html
ஆரம் http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santalum_album
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Sandalwood.html
அகில்பூ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquilaria_malaccensis
புன்னம்பூ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calophyllum_inophyllum
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Sultan%20Champa.html
நரந்தம் http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cymbopogon_flexuosus
நாகப்பூ http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Nag%20Kesar.html
http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/2209461274/in/photostream/
http://www.biotik.org/india/species/m/mesuferr/mesuferr_en.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesua_ferrea
நள்ளிருள் நாறி http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/horticulture/horti_flower%20crops_malligai.html
குருந்தம்பூ http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Indian%20Atalantia.html
வேங்கை http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pterocarpus_marsupium
புழகுப்பூ http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Crown%20Flower.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calotropis_gigantea
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